Today we most widely used neuroimaging techniques are fMRI, EEG and MEG. Now, NearInfrared Spectroscopy(NIRS) has became a choice for cognitive neuroscience studies.
NIRS, fNIRS imaging systems extend NIR spectroscopic studies to provide for collection of 3-D tomographic images that detail the dynamics of the vascular response to various forms of neuroactivation. Unlike in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) the optical method can distinguish between changes in deoxyhemoglobin levels caused by a variation in blood volume or blood oxygenation. In addition, optical methods allow for experimental paradigms that are highly impractical or infeasible with other functional imaging techniques due to restricted patient access and limited freedom of patient movement.
NIRS is non-invasive and practical new method to allow us to study motor and language paradigms in adults and children.